Currently, hydroponics is gaining popularity worldwide due to efficient resource management and quality food production. Soil-based agriculture is now facing various challenges such as urbanization, natural disasters, climate change, the indiscriminate use of chemicals and pesticides that deplete the fertility of the land.
Various hydroponic structures namely. wick, reflux and flow, drip, deep water culture, and nutrient film technique system (NFT); their operations; advantages and limits; the performance of different crops such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and leafy vegetables and the conservation of water by this technique were discussed. Several advantages of this technique are shorter crop growth times than conventional cultivation; year-round production; the minimal incidence of diseases and pests and weeding, spraying, watering, etc. can be eliminated.
Commercially, the NFT technique has been used worldwide to successfully produce leafy vegetables as well as other vegetables with water savings of 70 to 90%. The main countries of hydroponic technology are the Netherlands, Australia, France, England, Israel, Canada, and the United States.
For successful implementation of commercial hydroponics technology, it is important to develop low-cost techniques that are easy to use and maintain; requires less labor and overall configuration and lower operating costs. various images of the hydroponic system and their main characteristics.